Saturday 4 september 6 04 /09 /Sept. 22:37

 

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The PC World explains what ports and port scanner such as Nmap, as you discover vulnerabilities including Nmap and protect themselves against attackers.

Each PC requires open ports for Internet, Mail and Messenger. For ports, the input and output ports of your computer and Dell latitude d630 battery , any Internet-related applications are an open port required. But open ports are potential gateways for attackers. Moreover, important for the in-depth understanding of firewalls knowledge of ports.

The lion's share of Internet communication is done via the TCP and UDP protocols, so for example, the Internet traffic that is going on in your browser or mail program. Any application that is connected to the Internet in connection point to the TCP and UDP port number. So "" knows every data packet, to which application it belongs, so to speak, the port is the address for a particular type of Internet data. A HTTP packet for the browser ends up not in the mail program and a package of mail found its way into your mail client and not end up in the browser, thanks to each packet reaches its correct destination port numbers.

Sockets are the addresses of PCs and servers

Completing the address of a data packet with the IP address of the target Rechnerns. The combination of IP address of the target host and port number of the target application on the target machine is called a socket. Two sockets define a connection, one for the output and one for the target computer and latitude d620 battery . Thanks to the socket of each data Pact lands on the correct computer in the correct application. Conversely, there are of course on the server that makes the data available, the sockets, that is: There, too, have the appropriate ports open. Which brings us back to the subject would be.

Responsible for incoming mail POP3 server is working for example on port 110, a web server listening on port 80 (if you run even a web server on your computer, you have this when commissioning a port. Default is 80, is there an other its port (because you run two web servers simultaneously, for example), you must explicitly specify the way such as Apache's configuration file).

Each data packet therefore knows which port it is addressed. For this he is in fact added to the header of the data segment the sender and the destination port number. This applies to both the TCP and UDP for the protocol.

Server processes are always static port numbers, client requests get assigned to every request against a dynamic port number. A unique socket for a request to a web server (as are the open source Apache or Internet Information Services IIS from Microsoft) with the IP address 192.168.1.18 might look as follows: 192.168.1.18:80. And if the requesting client computer's IP address 192.168.100.12 has, then the socket for the supplied site would look like this: 192.168.100.12:49152 - whereby the latter would be the dynamically allocated port for the answer.

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Saturday 4 september 6 04 /09 /Sept. 22:31

 

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Windows provides a powerful set of commands available to verify that not only administrators and webmasters, but also end users quickly their network or their Internet connections and configure. We present the most important commands for the command line of Windows XP, Vista and Windows 7.

Three tools for network diagnosis 8th Reg.exe: Registry by command line

The registry edit on the command line? That sounds like an unreasonable time. With Reg.exe but can be, for example, copy all the key structures, or compare what the graphical registry editor can not. Other switches on each main command you get when you after the respective command /? . Enter

9th Ping, Tracert & Co.: tools for network diagnostics

When the browser displays only error messages instead of the desired pages, the Mail program in this mood for and ICQ goes offline, then the case is clear: Not every single program is broken, but the network has a problem. Within the command prompt, you can analyze the problem.

Ping is one of the most popular network tools. It checks whether a computer and pavilion dv6000 battery bis generally accessible, and it also betrays its IP number. Conversely, the works. The input ping-a IP-number determines the name of a computer, IP address, check the. Recently, however, the ping-looking statements are not as reliable: often ignorant equipped firewalls block ping queries, ironically even as www.microsoft.com. Tracert reveals path the network packets to the specified computer to take some. You get a list of servers that you and the target goal are between. related is PathPing. It not only checks the route of the packages, but pings all nodes again and created an extra behind the statistics. Similar Tracert tool lists the top down the server to the terminal on.

10th Netsh: Network configuration for professionals

The network settings are on Windows usually in the properties of "network environment before." But this is not the only way: the command-line tool Netsh.exe offers complete access to all network settings, either for diagnostic purposes or to reconfigure the network card. For all described features, you must start netsh from the command line (Cmd.exe) as the administrator.
Firewall: If you have Windows-own firewall verkonfiguriert example, you can a single command to the factory settings with. Open a command window and enter the command netsh firewall reset.

Diagnosis: To diagnose the settings, use the command "netsh diag gui" (XP only), the graphical environment starts one. There, under your "review options to set the desired test set options. After the system check, you get a results page, the success or failure of each test recorded.


Save and load configuration: About Netsh can also save the complete network configuration and needs to recover. This is useful for example if you are your notebook at home and in the office working on and with one of the two places need special settings, such as a static IP address. First take on the characteristics of the "Local Area Connection settings for all operations in the domestic network before. Then save this configuration in a text file:
netsh.exe interface dump -% appdata% heimnetz.txt \

Then go back into the network settings and set everything there one for the operation of the PC and Dell inspiron 1501 battery in the office network. Save these configuration
netsh.exe interface dump -% appdata% büronetz.txt \

Now you can ever change the configuration settings required to fast. The command
netsh.exe-f% appdata% \ heimnetz.txt activated, for example, the settings for the home network.

Create link: To ensure you do not always have to go on command, set up help from a comfortable links with a switch. Create a desktop shortcut, and enter the complete command as a target "netsh.exe-f% appdata% \ heimnetz.txt to" one. Give the link a descriptive name like "KonKonfiguration home network. Then create another shortcut, you target the command "netsh.exe-f% appdata% \ büronetz.txt than" and the name of "Configuration office network" geben.Ein double-clicking any of the links are activated on the respective network settings without you the configuration process must be even. It only takes a few seconds, updated interface is up and the settings are active.

Note: If you have Windows XP in one of the two network configurations, a "default gateway" under use, you must edit the relevant configuration file. If you are no gateway in the home network using, for example, open the file with a text editor Heimnetz.txt and bear "# Interface IP Configuration for LAN connection," this new line below:

Set address name = "Local Area Connection" gateway = none
It means that the default gateway is cleared when reading.

Tip: Windows keeps a lot more secret network commands for you.

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Wednesday 1 september 3 01 /09 /Sept. 05:29

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5th System Info: An information tool for all
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Information about your hardware, the Windows settings, installed service packs and hotfixes, network settings, the duration of the system and the saving power from Dell inspiron 1420 battery so on - all that you can bring about various tools in experience. We recommend a tool which, while spartan, because you operate at the command line, but also provides unsurpassed amount of information. His name: System Info. If you call it within a command prompt, you not only get the information you need to gather up otherwise tedious. In addition, you get to information that otherwise remain inaccessible, as the original installation date, and the internal system name for the installation drive.

Tip: With

System info | more
Show the output screen at a time and may continue using space bar. By
system info / for csv - Systeminfo.csv
Leave the result in a CSV file, which you can then open them in your spreadsheet.

6th Fc: compare files quickly

To compare two files, use within a command prompt, type Fc, followed by the file name. For text files, list the issue on any differences line by line. If the two files differ only by a few additional lines inserted, Fc recognizes the similarities: It shows the extra lines, but not all of the following evaluates as different. Instead, it noted a re-match and from then compares the files again with each other. If you do not text, but have to do with binary files, use the / b. This will give you the output in hexadecimal form.

Ip: for the contents of two folders that contain files with identical names, too, is suitable Fc.

k-dir1 \ *-dir2-\ *

Automatically compares two couples with the same file name in folder 1 - folder and 2 -. Do you want to restrict the comparison, instead of giving the asterisk, which records all files to a restrictive pattern, for example, *. txt or *. ini.

7th Robocopy: The synchronization tool

With a robot tool has nothing to do. The name Robocopy will only show that it is a robust tool is to copy. Since it is part of Windows Vista. XP users, it will also free by the Windows 2003 Resource Kit download and install.it also can save power of inspiron 640m battery. Robocopy, you can not just as a leader, but also as a replication tool used copy. The difference is crucial: Pure cloning tools to delete the destination directory never anything. A replicator, however, has the task to keep directories in sync, this may well include files to remove the target directory that does not exist in the source directory. The / e alone about Robocopy copies the contents of directory including all subdirectories, source-to-finish:

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Wednesday 1 september 3 01 /09 /Sept. 05:24

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A small, private network will be maintained as regularly as an office or a large corporate LAN. The search for errors or bottle necks is the custom. Small free tools to make the Windows board funds advanced functions. This allows you to remotely control computer,your pavilion dv2000 series battery and monitor some or gain an overview of the data flow on the LAN.

In this updated article we present a collection of useful network utilities for Windows systems prior to you life easier. The tools were from our sister publication tecCHANNEL collected.

Wireshark: Traffic Monitoring Network

System managers set for fault diagnosis often a network sniffer, mitprotokollieren with the traffic. The sniffer collects transfer protocols and allows a bit-accurate analysis of the transmitted data. With sniffers can detect errors in the LAN, but also programs that secretly send data. Professionals to invest in a good packet sniffer be several hundred or thousand €. Administrators of small and medium-sized networks often come with more freeware sniffers.

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One of the few well-made free tools for evaluating the network traffic is Wireshark. The tool relies on the free WinPcap Capture Driver (http://battery-store.com.au), the setup is automatically downloaded and installed while. Winpcap hooks itself into the driver of a network adapter and ensures that all messages sent and received packets in a buffer are cached. It takes to Wireshark.

The software allows to analyze both the current data networking, and archived data to read from a log file. It can be details about each TCP / IP packet to bring to the screen. In addition, the sniffer on analysis and reporting capabilities and its own scripting language for filtering network packets. The only drawback to Ethereal is the complicated definition of the filters.

Alternative to Wireshark: In terms of equipment exceeds Colasoft Capsa , the free tool Wireshark only slightly, in terms of ease of use Capsa is significantly forward. The software can detect errors and identify the data fragments. An extensive set of individual Filtermechnismen with protocol rules support the administrator at work.

A-Toolbar: Fast Connection Control

The easiest way to check whether a website or server is running is accessible, using the ping command. With PING.EXE of Windows, you check the network connection to another station. Ping is thus particularly interesting for the fault diagnosis before, because it can not ping computer only himself but all the devices own IP address feature. Once a station does not respond to ping, all other network services work this remote does not. Either there is hardware malfunction in one, or the appropriate network settings are incorrect, or an understanding of different protocols is not possible due. For Web, FTP and news servers, you can ping out with whether the corresponding server is online at all.

More comfortable than with PING.EXE you use ping with the A-Toolbar. After starting the program, click on the round blue button, type in the address of the remote station to be checked in the "Host" and start the check of the Returnkey. In addition to Ping holds bar of choice AToolbar still a lot of other Internet and desktop tools provide the. Says program offers the example, port scanner, address lookup function, search engine mask, DNS lookup, Whois, Google Page Rank and link manager. With the desktop computer and Hp pavilion dv9000 battery for the search, you can mail and documents to investigate. The results shows the tool under "Result on Tabs. The starting block of the A-Toolbar settles on the taskbar on the desktop. You can minimize, if necessary, so that the familiar applications available for area.

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Monday 30 august 1 30 /08 /Aug. 22:51

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Tracert and pathping Show route data packets

With the command tracert (Caution : avoid confusion with Linux, where the traceroute command is ) and the appropriate parameters to display the path and all intermediate points (called hops) a packet of data between two hosts. For example, type "tracert www.pcwelt.de " one . They then learn that the data packet to pcwelt.de goes on - in our specific example see the screenshot - eight hops. Starting with the Fritzbox (which is our default gateway ) of six intermediate stations (for example, your ISP , various routers and gateways) to the destination server pcwelt.de . You also learn how much time the data packet from one station to the next file. For Tracert there under the Free and Shareware Visualization tools that provide a kind of map of the world , with the route of your parcel is located.

Tracert can be used both with an IP address as well as a host name. Tracert is to host the IP address.

The term describes the way TTL Time to Live the life of a data packet in the network. Maximum of one package may go over 255 router, which is Time to Live in each router transition ( Hop ) is reduced by one. TTL reaches 0 and it could not be delivered until then , the packet is discarded.

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Pathping : combination of ping and tracert

Pathping is the development of the tracert and ping commands . The upper part of the output is largely the result of tracert . Including a detailed analysis followed by information for transmission of data packets on each hop. All the intermediate routers receive pings , respectively , based on their responses PathPing calculates a statistic. Packet loss and response time are displayed on each router, thus the causes for failure can be a route to quickly identify .

Net: Useful network commands

The net command family to provide a range of functions , not all are necessarily related to the network of your PC and Dell latitude d600 battery . The net commands do also have to do with the Microsoft . NET Framework. Some examples of lists : net accounts on the user directives. Net local group shows the existing local user groups. With net local group / add / Tester you will add a new user group called testers. Net local group / add Neuert T ester adds the user Neuert added . With net user neuer_nutzer neues_passwort / add / insert the user with the password to neuer_nutzer neues_passwort .

Net share displays all shares on the local machine. With net share Name_des_freigegebenen_Laufwerks you can view details of the specified share . With " net session " to see who the Server is connected - this command is of course only on a server system and not on the client meaning. Net / ? shows all available net commands. net help COMMAND delivers the appropriate help information.

Netsh

Netsh is a shell for network commands dar. An example : You can see little need to uninstall IPV6 and completely reset the IP configuration (install state) with the command " netsh interface ipv6 uninstall " and " netsh interface ip reset c : reset \ . txt. "

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